IMPARARE IL LINGUAGGIO DALLA TV O DA VIDEO DEDICATI?

Se lo scopo che ci prefiggiamo è quello di migliorare le competenze del bambino in riferimento al linguaggio recettivo ed espressivo, esporre il bambino alla TV o a programmi video interattivi tramite DVD potrebbe favorire un miglioramento del linguaggio? Per rispondere a questo interrogativo sono stati effettuati diversi studi di intervento realizzati con l’obiettivo di valutare l’efficacia dei diversi supporti multimediali e video rivolti ai bambini dei primi mesi o primi anni di vita. In uno dei più recenti studi sono stati testati 88 bambini tra i dodici e i venticinque mesi di età. Metà dei bambini utilizzarono per sei settimane il DVD “Baby Einstein”, mentre metà fungeva da gruppo di controllo. Alla fine del periodo di esposizione è risultato che i bambini del gruppo di intervento con il DVD non avevano presentato nessun arricchimento di vocabolario rispetto al gruppo di controllo.

Richert RA, Robb MB, Fender JG, Wartella E. Word learning from baby videos. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010 May;164(5):432-7.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether children between 12 and 25 months of age learn words from an infant-directed DVD designed for that purpose. DESIGN: Half of the children received a DVD to watch in their home over the course of 6 weeks. SETTING: All participants returned to a laboratory for testing on vocabulary acquisition every 2 weeks. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-six 12- to 24-month-old children. MAIN EXPOSURE: Baby videos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parent report and observational measures of vocabulary acquisition related to words highlighted in the DVD; parent report of general language development; and parent report of children’s media use. RESULTS: The age at first viewing of baby DVDs was related to children’s general language development. There was no evidence of learning words highlighted in the infant-directed DVD independent of parental intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers should continue to examine whether infant-directed media are effective in teaching infants and toddlers content and consider the cognitive factors related to whether very young viewers should be expected to learn from a DVD.

Per imparare dal video è necessaria l’interazione sociale, ossia la presenza di un adulto che si relazioni affettivamente con il bambino: è questa la conclusione che tutti gli studi rivolti a valutare l’efficacia. Ormai sono numerosissimi gli studi che hanno valutato l’esposizione dei bambini verso i media e l’esito sul linguaggio. Non solo non vi è un miglioramento del linguaggio anche se l’esposizione al video è su programmi dedicati per la fascia di età, ma, più spesso, è presente una riduzione nello sviluppo del linguaggio, soprattutto se l’esposizione video è con contenuti per adulti. Di più, il peggioramento dell’esito sul linguaggio è associato proporzionalmente alla quantità di esposizione al contenuto mediale.

Robb MB, Richert RA, Wartella EA. Just a talking book? Word learning from watching baby videos. Br J Dev Psychol. 2009 Mar; 27(Pt 1):27-45.

This study examined the relationship between viewing an infant DVD and expressive and receptive language outcomes. Children between 12 and 15 months were randomly assigned to view Baby Wordsworth, a DVD highlighting words around the house marketed for children beginning at 12 months of age. Viewings took place in home settings over 6 weeks. After every 2 weeks and five exposures to the DVD, children were assessed on expressive and receptive communication measures.

Results indicated there was no increased growth on either outcome for children who had viewed the DVD as compared to children in the control group, even after multiple exposures. After controlling for age, gender, cognitive developmental level, income, and parent education, the most significant predictor of vocabulary comprehension and production scores was the amount of time children were read to.

Nelle ultime decadi la quantità di tempo libero dedicato dai genitori ai loro figli è diminuita in termini consistenti, mentre cresce a dismisura il fatturato plurimiliardario dell’industria dei prodotti video che promettono un miglior sviluppo dell’intelligenza dei bambini. Lo studio di Zimmerman e coll. sulla valutazione dell’efficacia di uno tra questi prodotti video DVD per bambini, il più reclamizzato e venduto sul mercato, portò alla conclusione che non solo non vi era un miglioramento delle capacità linguistico cognitive nei bambini, ma si associava ad un peggioramento delle abilità comunicative rispetto al gruppo di controllo. La presenza di familiari adulti non migliorava l’esito all’esposizione del DVD. La Walt Disney Company, proprietaria del marchio e del prodotto video chiese ufficialmente all’Università di Washigton una ritrattazione dello studio, contestando numerose inesattezze. (v. Walt Disney domanda ritrattazione ). Dopo una consultazione con gli autori dello studio, l’Università emise un comunicato stampa in cui rifiutava di accettare le richieste della Company, confermando i risultati dello studio (v. risposta Univ. Washington )

Zimmerman FJ, Chirstakis, DA, Melzoff, AN. Associations between Media Viewing and Language Development in Children Under Age 2 Years. J Pediatr 2007;151:364-8

Objective To test the association of media exposure with language development in children under age 2 years. Study design A total of 1008 parents of children age 2 to 24 months, identified by birth certificates, were surveyed by telephone in February 2006. Questions were asked about child and parent demographics, child-parent interactions, and child’s viewing of several content types of television and DVDs/videos. Parents were also asked to complete the short form of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI). The associations between normed CDI scores and media exposure were evaluated using multivariate regression, controlling for parent and child demographics and parent–child interactions. Results Among infants (age 8 to 16 months), each hour per day of viewing baby DVDs/videos was associated with a 16.99-point decrement in CDI score in a fully adjusted model (95% confidence interval__26.20 to _7.77). Among toddlers (age 17 to 24 months), there were no significant associations between any type of media exposure and CDI scores. Amount of parental viewing with the child was not significantly associated with CDI scores in either infants or toddlers. Conclusions Further research is required to determine the reasons for an association between early viewing of baby DVDs/videos and poor language development.

Schmidt ME, , Rich M,  Rifas-Shiman SL,  Emily Oken E,  Taveras EM. Television Viewing in Infancy and Child Cognition at 3 Years of Age in a US Cohort. Pediatrics 2009;123:e370–e375

OBJECTIVE. To examine the extent to which infant television viewing is associated with language and visual motor skills at 3 years of age. MEASURES.We studied 872 children who were participants in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. The design used was a longitudinal survey, and the setting was a multisite group practice in Massachusetts. At 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, mothers reported the number of hours their children watched television in a 24-hour period, from which we derived a weighted average of daily television viewing. We used multivariable regression analyses to predict the independent associations of television viewing between birth and 2 years with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III and Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities scores at 3 years of age. RESULTS. Mean daily television viewing in infancy (birth to 2 years) was 1.2 (SD: 0.9) hours, less than has been found in other studies of this age group. Mean Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score at age 3 was 104.8 (SD: 14.2); mean standardized total Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities score at age 3 was 102.6 (SD: 11.2). After adjusting for maternal age, income, education, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score, marital status, and parity, and child’s age, gender, birth weight for gestational age, breastfeeding duration,  ace/ethnicity, primary language, and average daily sleep duration, we found that each additional hour of television viewing in infancy was not associated with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III or total standardized Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities scores at age 3. CONCLUSION. Television viewing in infancy does not seem to be associated with language or visual motor skills at 3 years of age.

DeLoache JS, Chiong C, Sherman K, Islam N, Vanderborght M, Troseth GL, Strouse GA, O’Doherty K.  Do Babies Learn From Baby Media? Psychological Science 21(11) 1570 –1574

Abstract In recent years, parents in the United States and worldwide have purchased enormous numbers of videos and DVDs designed and marketed for infants, many assuming that their children would benefit from watching them. We examined how many new words 12- to 18-month-old children learned from viewing a popular DVD several times a week for 4 weeks at home. The most important result was that children who viewed the DVD did not learn any more words from their monthlong exposure to it than did a control group. The highest level of learning occurred in a no-video condition in which parents tried to teach their children the same target words during everyday activities. Another important result was that parents who liked the DVD tended to overestimate how much their children had learned from it. We conclude that infants learn relatively little from infant media and that their parents sometimes overestimate what they do learn.

Uno studio prospettico che ha coinvolto 253 coppie madre-figlio di bassa estrazione sociale ha voluto misurare l’impatto dell’esposizione al video di bambini di sei mesi di età associando questa all’interazione con il genitore. I dati sui tempi di esposizione ai media (televisione, DVD, cinema, video games) così come i momenti di interazione con il genitore sono stati raccolti tramite intervista o per mezzo di un diario ed è stata eseguita una misurazione del linguaggio al bambino all’età di quattordici mesi. I risultati dello studio hanno dimostrato che l’interazione verbale durante l’esposizione al video riduce l’impatto negativo sul linguaggio, confermando altresì l’impatto negativo del video in assenza di interazione ma non un impatto positivo sul linguaggio dovuto all’interazione verbale tra genitore e bambino durante l’esposizione video. In alcuni casi l’impatto della relazione verbale genitore-bambino può migliorare l’esito sul linguaggio anche se questo non può essere completamente confermato in quanto possono essere presenti altri tipi di stimolazione cognitiva ed educativa nel contesto ambientale in cui vive la famiglia (Fig 3).

Alan L. Mendelsohn AL,  Brockmeyer CA, Dreyer BP, Fierman AH, Berkule-Silberman SB and Tomopoulos S. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on their Language Development as Toddlers? Inf. Child. Dev. 2010; 19: 577–593

The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure (‘media verbal interactions’) might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts  of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother–infant dyads participating in a longitudinal study, media exposure and media verbal interactions were assessed using 24-hour recall diaries. Additionally, general level of cognitive stimulation in the home [StimQ] was assessed at 6 months and language development [Preschool Language Scale-4] was assessed at 14 months. Results suggest that media verbal interactions play a role in the language development of infants from low-income, immigrant families. Evidence showed that media verbal interactions moderated adverse impacts of media exposure found on 14-month language development, with adverse associations found only in the absence the these interactions. Findings also suggest that media verbal interactions may have some direct positive impacts on language development, in that media verbal interactions during the co-viewing of media with educational content (but not other content) were predictive of 14-month language independently of overall level of cognitive stimulation in the home.

Da una relazione del Dott.Panza Costantino

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